Component connections are high strength, high conductivity element assemblies that serve to
hold or connect building components within the envelope, such as window and door frames and
window and curtain wall mullions.
Envelope penetrations include any element that passes between the inside and outside, thereby
interrupting the continuity of the thermal envelope insulation. These include stacks, vents, utility
conduits, pipes, and rooftop equipment supports.
Corner effects refer to constructions at corners which accentuate two-dimensional heat flow paths
that exist at corners. Some of these corner constructions also lead to discontinuities in the
envelope insulation layer and the air barrier.
A recent report by Steven Winter Associates identifies twenty-one thermal bridges commonly found
in commercial building envelopes, calculates the effect of each on heat transmission rates and