5 space-type cost analysis
As part of a new construction-project cost-estimate submission, the Independent Government
Estimator estimates construction costs by space types by:
Identifying all project space types, considering at least those categories listed in the
Separately itemizing special costs outside normal requirements of listed space types,
addressing at least those listed in the Appendix as Special Costs Excluded.
6 life-cycle cost analysis
Life-cycle costing (LCC) is the development of all significant costs of acquiring, owning, and
using an item, system, or service over a specified length of time. The time period used is the
projected effective useful life of the facility, and its determination includes consideration of
functional obsolescence of major components or systems. It is used to compare and evaluate
the total costs of competing solutions based on the anticipated life of the facility or product to
The value of an item includes not only consideration of the costs of acquiring it, but also the
costs of using it or the cost of performance for as long as the user needs it. Costs of repairs,
operations, preventive maintenance, logistic support utilities, depreciation, and replacement,
in addition to capital cost, all contribute to the total cost of a product to a user.
For further guidance refer to Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service (PBS P100)
and GSA Value Engineering Guide (PBS-PQ250 and 251).
7 value engineering studies
Value engineering (VE) is conducted during the concept design and design development phases
to explore cost saving/value-enhancing options before selecting final design features. GSA may
conduct additional studies during the 75% and 90% construction documents phases, and for
100% construction documents if deemed necessary due to technical or budgetary constraints.
A single study may be appropriate on smaller, less complex projects. The basic approach is to
consider macro level issues at concept design and more micro level issues at design development.
prospectus product / deliverable P-120