8.1 Planning and Cost
assessment and strategic programming. Strategic pro-
gramming includes focusing security modifications on
vulnerability points and locating less vulnerable activities
in the historic buildings.
Zones of Protection
Designing and constructing safe and secure cost effective
buildings has always been one of GSA's primary goals.
A zoned protection system is used, with intensifying areas
To design and construct a safe and secure building, a
of security beginning at the site perimeter and moving to
collaborative approach to the design process is required,
the interior of the building.
starting at the conceptual phase of the project and
continuing throughout the process. It is necessary for all
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
persons responsible for the safety and security of the
(CPTED). CPTED techniques should be used to help
building components to interact closely throughout the
prevent and mitigate crime. Good strategic thinking on
entire design and construction process. This means that
CPTED issues such as site planning, perimeter definition,
all interested parties involved in issues pertaining to safety
sight lines, lighting, etc., can reduce the need for some
and security understand the issues and concerns of both
parties. This also involves inviting the client, local building
For further information on CPTED, see:
and fire officials, the appropriate designers and consul-
tants to participate in such discussions. This process is
Publications by the National Institute of Law
particularly helpful in complex situations where many
Enforcement and Criminal Justice (NILECJ).
people represent different interests and a common goal
Crowe, Timothy D., Crime Prevention Through
needs to be achieved (i.e., a safe and secure building).
Environmental Design. National Crime Prevention
A multidisciplinary team will determine the appropriate
design criteria for each project, based on a building-
Capability to Increase or Decrease Security. Designs
specific risk assessment and an analysis of all available
should include the ability to increase security in response
information on security considerations, constraints, and
to a heightened threat, as well as to reduce security if
tenant needs. However, a delicate balance must be
changes in risk warrant it.
achieved between safety and the security measures
proposed. Therefore, the GSA fire protection engineer
Multidisciplinary Approach. Improving security is the
shall be a full participant on the subject multidisciplinary
business of everyone involved with Federal facilities
team to ensure that the safety of the building occupants
including designers, builders, operations and protection
exiting the building and the emergency responders
personnel, employees, clients, and visitors. Professionals
entering the building are not impacted unknowingly by
who can contribute to implementing the criteria in this
any proposed security measure. In the event Raised
document include architects and structural, mechanical,
Floor/Underfloor Air Distribution systems are considered
fire protection, security, cost, and electrical engineers.
for the project, refer to GSA RF/UFAD Guidelines.
Blast engineers and glazing specialists may also be
In historic buildings, to minimize loss of character,
design criteria should be based on facility-specific risk
Planning and Cost
Revised March 2005 PBS-P100