2.0 Analysis of Existing Conditions
The first task was to identify the design guidance provided by the two primary agencies GSA
and AOUSC along with other relevant technical information, the existing conditions in
courtrooms, and the process by which designs are developed and installed.
2.1 Relevant Design Criteria and Standards
Data was gathered to determine what the prevailing criteria and standards are for courtroom
design, as well as the existing conditions in the courtroom sample set. Sources included the
(1) U.S Courts Design Guide (US Courts),
(2) GSA PBS Facilities Standards for the Public Building Service (PBS P-100),
(3) IESNA1 Lighting Handbook, 9th Edition (IESNA),
(4) Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT),
(5) ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA2 Standard 90.1-2004 (ASHRAE),
(6) Federal commercial building energy code 10 CFR Part 434 (10 CFR Part 434).
2.1.1. U.S. Courts Design Guide
The U.S. Courts Design Guide (USCDG) provides guidance about lighting in courtrooms,
summarized as follows.
Footcandle levels range from 40 to 75 footcandles (fc) (430 to 800 lux).
Acceptable lighting is identified by source and distribution. Fluorescent can be used for
direct or indirect applications. Incandescent is only allowed in direct luminaires, while
metal halide is only allowed in indirect applications.
Specific control requirements are provided, including the minimum "scenes" that will
be required of the control system.
Additional general guidance calls for lighting that is sensitive to the needs of video
display and recording, evidence display, and computer usage. Good color rendering is
called for, as well as vertical footcandles. Caution is suggested with respect to bright
sources because of the possibility of glare. Concerns about noise from voltage
fluctuation of high wattage lamps are also raised.
2.1.2. GSA PBS P-100
The most recent update to the Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service (GSA P-
100) was issued in March of 2005. In particular, Chapter 6, Section 6.8 on Interior Lighting
has incorporated changes from the IESNA Lighting Handbook 9th edition, and has been
thoughtfully updated with respect to issues related to energy efficiency, sustainability and
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
American National Standards Institute, American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, and Air