U.S. Courts Design Guide
for preparing the courtroom prior to the start of proceedings, announcing cases,
and operating timing system and recording equipment.
Court Reporter/Recorder. The court reporter/recorder records court
U.S. Marshals Service Personnel. U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) personnel are
responsible for custody and movement of criminal defendants; safety, security, and
privacy of the judge, jurors, and witnesses; security of the courtroom and safety of
its occupants; and maintaining order in the courtroom.
U.S. Court of Appeals
Judicial Officers. A panel of three judges hears appeals. Some cases are heard by
all judges sitting en banc, except in the Ninth Circuit, which always sits in en banc
Court Personnel. For both panel and en banc hearings, a bailiff (in some
locations), a courtroom deputy clerk, and at least three law clerks are present.
Security Personnel. Normally, no security personnel are present in the courtroom.
Attorneys. In appellate cases, at least one attorney is present on each side of the
case. Counsel must be accommodated in USCA courtrooms with two attorney
tables, each seating at least four participants. Additional seating can be provided
within the well for attorneys waiting for their cases to be called.
Litigants. Typically, no litigants are present in the well of the courtroom.
Witnesses and Interpreters. No witnesses or interpreters are present in the well
of the courtroom.
Jurors. No jurors are present in the well of the courtroom.
Spectators. For most appeals proceedings, spectator and media attendance will be
minimal. Spectator seating should be provided as follows: en banc courtroom,
120-150 spectators minimum; and panel courtroom, 40-80 spectators minimum.