CHAPTER 6: SITE DESIGN
The arrangement should minimize the risk to pedestrians and allow safe
Formula: Full capacity x .7 / 8.57 = minimum number of drop off spaces
flow of vehicles through the area. The parking should never be arranged in
Additional parking should include spaces for staff vans and handicapped.
a way that forces children or persons in wheelchairs to proceed behind
parked cars. Such an arrangement may mean that a driver is unable to
Staff parking should be provided for 80% of employees required at peak
see such pedestrians when backing up. Walkways in front of vehicles must
capacity. Accessible parking spaces may be considered as staff or drop
be protected by tire guards, bollards or some other means to prevent any
portion of a vehicle from advancing into the walkway zones. Locate the
parking away from busy intersections or vehicle circulation routes.
The employee parking area should be designed to minimize dependence
on conventional automobiles, by maximizing the following strategies
For emergency purposes, at least one parking space, typically for the center
enumerated in the LEED Version 2.0 Credit on Alternative Transportation:
director's use must be provided as near to the center entrance as possible.
Size parking capacity not to exceed minimum local zoning requirements.
If Federal employee parking is provided at the building, allow one parking
Add no new parking for rehabilitation projects.
space for each child care center employee for every ten children of center
Provide preferred parking for carpools or van pools capable of serving
capacity. Disabled employees must be accommodated with a properly
5% of the building occupants.
sized parking space(s) as near to the center as possible.
Provide suitable means for securing bicycles, for 5% or more of building
As the site configuration and location allow, the employee parking spaces
Consider also the installation of alternative-fuel refueling station(s) for
should be located as near to the center as possible for safety and ease of
3% of the total vehicle parking capacity of the site. This may be feasible
access. (It should be noted that, in winter months particularly, staff members
if combined with the fueling needs of a larger campus.
may be required to leave the center after dark, when most other employees
will have already left the premises.) Ideally, an unobstructed line of sight
As in any other work place, staff may chose to travel to work by a number
should be provided between the interior of the center director's office through
of means. Other features to assist those choosing to commute via bicycle
the center entrance and into the short term parking. At a minimum, two
(secure bicycle parking), public transportation (close and safe passage to
permanent parking spaces will be assigned to the child care center. Note
bus or metro stops), or carpool (designated preferred parking spaces) must
that in rare cases, permanent parking will not be available. If two permanent
be provided to serve at least 5% of the adult building occupants.
spaces cannot be provided, approval must be obtained from the RCCC to
waive the requirement. This does not change the need for identifying
reserved parking spaces as near to the center as possible for short-term
Service access to a center will typically make use of the main building dock
space and service access if the main building provides these areas. In a
parking for parents.
stand-alone center, a dock is not necessary. Service access for sanitation
removal, food and supply delivery, if these are not provided by the main
Parents are required to physically bring their child(ren) into the center to
building, should be separated from short-term and staff parking. Likewise,
"sign in," and to pick up their child(ren) inside the center and "sign out."
a sanitation dumpster with screening may be necessary if this service is
The reverse is true in the evening. The center usually opens at 6:30 AM
not provided by the main building. One service parking space is desirable
and fills on a bell curve that peaks around 10 AM when the building will be
to avoid conflicts in deliveries if possible in the context where the center is
at maximum preschool/infant/toddler capacity. Staff will arrive for work
located. The ventilation system design should ensure that emissions from
only as an increased number of children fill the building. In the evening,
vehicles at the service entry are isolated from the indoor air of the occupied
teachers will remain only as long as necessary to maintain the required
space of the child care center.
staff to child ratio. A completely full building will be extremely rare due to
illnesses or family vacations. In addition, many of the children in the facility
will have a sibling enrolled at the center, further reducing auto traffic. The
A prime area of concern in the establishment of a child care center is security.
average time for loading and unloading (parking time) is seven minutes. In
The design team must coordinate with local representatives of GSA's Fed-
the absence of actual data, the following formula may be used:
PBS-140 - July 2003